Between Fact and Ego-Literature: Memoir and Publicistic “Odyssea” by Anna Franko-Klyuchko (Genre-Thematic Polyphony)




the Frankish literary dynasty, Anna Franko-Klyuchko, journalism, memoirs, ego-literature, ego-texts, autobiography


Article is devoted to the memoir and artistic and journalistic work of Anna Franko-Klyuchko (1892–1988), the youngest daughter of Ivan Franko. The purpose of the studio is to reveal the creative individuality of the author as a representative of the literary dynasty of the Franks. The investigation is based on historical and documentary research using analytical, synthetic, biographical, bibliographic, cultural-historical, and geneological methods. The novelty of the research consists in understanding and introducing into scientific circulation a number of memoirs and journalistic texts of Anna Franko-Klyuchko, which were scattered in diasporic periodicals and for a long time were out of the attention of researchers. On the basis of the analysis of these texts, conclusions are made about the peculiarities of the creative style of Anna Franko-Klyuchko, which is characterized by a high degree of autobiography, emotionality and imagery, and the dominance of the genres of essays and memoirs. The texts of Anna Franko-Klyuchko can be considered documents of the author's creative and life history (characteristically ego-literature). As a whole, the memoir and journalistic texts of Anna Franko-Klyuchko make up a long story of the life of the author herself: one text grows into another, creating a travelogue lasting a lifetime with unrealized dreams and real events. The source for Anna Franko-Klyuchko’s texts was either her memories of the years she lived in Ukraine, or events from the author’s emigrant life, which as a whole represented the great drama of the generation that suffered defeat in the national liberation contests of the beginning of the 20th century. In the psychoanalytical dimension, literary creativity was for Frank's daughter an attempt to go beyond the limits of the possible: a way to return home (imaginatively in dreams, memories and fantasies), when in reality she could not return there, when the ship of her life was sailing in the opposite direction from her native home, and her soul was torn home. This form of creative existence became the secret of the author’s longevity and at the same time vividly reflected the tragedy of the generation of Franko’s children, whose lives were spent in emigration.

Author Biography

Nataliia Tykholoz, Ivan Franko Lviv National University

Department of Ukrainian Literature named after Acad. M. Wozniak

Ivan Franko Lviv National University

University Street 1, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine


Bilokin, S. (1996). Lysty Anny Franko-Kliuchko do Sviatoslava Hordyns’koho [Anna Franko-Klyuchko’s letters to Svyatoslav Gordynskyi]. Suchasnist’, no. 12, pp. 116–126. (in Ukrainian).

Hanna Franko-Kliuchko pro svoï vrazhennia z podorozhi v USSR [Anna Franko-Klyuchko about her impressions of her trip to the Ukrainian SSR] (1967). Literatura i Mystetstvo (dodatok do haz. “Homin Ukraïny”), no. 9, 16.X. p. 4. (in Ukrainian).

Hyrych, I. and Tykholoz, N. (2022). “Nosit’sia dal’she z svoïm Hrushevs’kym…”: lysty Anny Kliuchko do Volodymyra Doroshenka z arkhivu UVAN u SShA [“Carry further with your Hrushevsky…”: Anna Klyuchko’s letters to Volodymyr Doroshenko from the UVAN archive in the USA]. Ukraïns’ka biohrafistyka, no. 23, pp. 192–261. (in Ukrainian).

Kompromituiucha zaiava Anny Franko-Kliuchko [A statement that compromises Anna Franko-Klyuchko] (1967). Homin Ukraïny, no. 32–33, 19.VIII, p. 5. (in Ukrainian).

Tykholoz, N. (2011). “Ta vernimosia do shkoly: tam sontse, molodist’, zhyttia…” (Spomyny zi shkil’nykh lit Anny Franko) [“Let us return to school: there sun, youth, life...” (Memories of school years of Anna Franko)]. Visnyk L’vivs’koho universytetu. Seriia filolohichna: Frankoznavstvo, no. 55, pp. 304–337. (in Ukrainian).

Tykholoz, N. (2012). Odisseia Anny Franko-Kliuchko [Odyssey of Anna Franko-Klyuchko]. Naukovi zoshyty istorychnoho fakul’tetu L’vivs’koho universytetu, no. 13, pp. 60–88. (in Ukrainian).

Tykholoz, N. (2017). Kyïvs’kyi Velykden’ Anny Franko [Anna Franko’s Kyiv Easter]. Franko:Nazhyvo, 15 April. URL:київський-великдень-анни-франко/ (accessed: 15.06.2023). (in Ukrainian).

Tykholoz, N. (2021). Z kukhovars’koho zshytka Anny Franko-Kliuchko [From Anna Franko-Klyuchko’s cookbook]. Seeds and Roots. Ukrainian Culinary Heritage Project, 8 August. URL: (accessed: 12.05.2023). (in Ukrainian).

Tykholoz, N. (2022). Petro Kliuchko: shtrykhy do zhyttiepysu viis’kovoho likaria [Petro Klyuchko: touches to the biography of a military doctor]. Franko:Nazhyvo, 12 July. URL:петро-ключко-штрихи-до-життєпису-війс/ (accessed: 15.06.2023). (in Ukrainian).

Franko, T. (2015). Vybrane [Selected]. In 2 vols. Comp. Ye. Baran and N. Tykholoz). Ivano-Frankivsk : Vydavets’ Senkiv M. Ya., vol. 1, 964 p.; vool. 2, 760 p. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Kliuchko, A. (1956a). Ivan Franko i ioho rodyna. Spomyny [Ivan Franko and his family. Memories]. Toronto : Liha vyzvolennia Ukraïny, 132 p. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1956b). Poïzdka do Vinnipehu [Trip to Winnipeg]. Zhinochyi svit, no. 9, pp. 5–6. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1956c). Tam, de plekaiut’ ukraïns’ki tradytsiï [Here Ukrainian traditions are nurtured]. Svoboda, no. 221, 16.XI, p. 2. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1957a). Velykden’ u Karpats’kii Ukraïni [Easter in Carpathian Ukraine]. Zhinochyi svit, no. 4, pp. 7–9. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1957b). Vidkhylena maska [Rejected mask]. Zhinochyi svit, no. 1, pp. 6–7. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1957c). Lysty do tovaryshky [Letters to a friend]. Svoboda, no. 186–196, 27.IX. – 11.X. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1957d). Tse bula moia vchytel’ka. Pamiati Konstantyny Malytskoï [It was my teacher. In memory of Konstantina Malytska]. Nashe zhyttia, no. 3, pp. 5–6. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1957e). Tse bulo v Chikago [It was in Chicago]. Ovyd, no. 2/3 (79/80), pp. 9–11. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1958). Madonna [Madonna]. Zhinochyi svit, no. 5, pp. 7–8. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1959a). Odisseia moho zhyttia [Odyssey of my life]. Homin Ukrainy, no. 13–18, 21–31, 33–44, 46–50, 21.III.–5.XII. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, H. (1959b). Na porozi novoho zhyttia [On the threshold of a new life]. Nashe zhyttia, no. 5, pp. 5–6; no. 6, pp. 7–8. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1960a). Zhadka pro mynule i potreba suchasnosty [Remembrance of the past and the need for modernity]. Zhinochyi svit, no. 1, pp. 13–14. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, H. (1960b). Ukraïns’ki notky [Ukrainian notes]. Nashe zhyttia, no. 10, pp. 9–10. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, H. (1960c). Shliakhom vikiv [Through the ages]. Nashe zhyttia, no. 8, p. 8. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1961). Ukraïns’ka pysanka [Ukrainian Easter egg]. Zhinochyi svit, no. 4, p. 4. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, H. (1962). Naikrashchyi Velykden’ [The best Easter ever]. Nashe zhyttia, no. 4, p. 7. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (1967). Teplo ridnoho kraiu [The warmth of the native land]. Literaturna Ukraïna, 1, 7.VIII. (in Ukrainian).

Franko-Klyuchko, A. (2010). Dlia Tebe, Tatu [For you, Dad]. Comp. M. Shalata. Kyiv : Yaroslaviv val, 560 p. (in Ukrainian).


2023-12-29 — Updated on 2023-12-29

How to Cite

Tykholoz, N. “Between Fact and Ego-Literature: Memoir and Publicistic ‘Odyssea’ by Anna Franko-Klyuchko (Genre-Thematic Polyphony)”. Pitannâ lìteraturoznavstva, no. 108, Dec. 2023, pp. 164-87, doi:10.31861/pytlit2023.108.164.



Genre Study