Pitannâ lìteraturoznavstva 2021-04-28T18:26:31+00:00 Roman Dzyk Open Journal Systems <p><strong>“Pytannia literaturoznavstva”</strong> (“Problems of Literary Criticism”) is the oldest Ukrainian periodical scientific Journal on problems of poetics and history of world literature.</p><p>Published since 1966.</p> The Imagined Geography in the Philology of Erich Auerbach 2021-04-28T18:26:31+00:00 Angel Angelov <p>The purpose of the author is to find the main motive why Auerbach chose to use the non-disciplinary term “European philologists” and what he meant by that. I argue that Auerbach’s consciousness of Europe as a historical entity was formed in the 1920s, but his exile turned this consciousness into a position. A basic question is about the symbolic geography of European culture in the works of Auerbach. The synonymous use of Europe and Abendland distinctly reveals Auerbach’s dual, unifying/divisive understanding of the identity and symbolic geography of European culture. If we accept the opinion that the European has been represented for centuries by the Romance, then the tasks of Romance philology as European philology will become clearer and the cultural geography of Europe narrower. The cultural-historical identification of Europe and Abendland after the Second World War solidified the anyway existing division of Europe in to two blocs. Literary history and philology divided Europe in the way this was done by the relevant political doctrines too. The human sciences also contributed significantly to the creation of value-attitudes, and an investigation of the former from this perspective gives us additional reason to assume that the agreement on the division of Europe after the Allied victory was not based solely on strategic interests.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Angel Angelov Anthropology of Desire Correlate in Oles Ulianenko’s Novel “Syn Tini” 2021-04-28T05:58:59+00:00 Feliks Shteinbuk <p>Oles Ulianenko, one of the most talented and controversial modern Ukrainian writers, has been dead for ten years. However, during his life O. Ulianenko’s works were not given any appropriate professional interpretation as the literary scholars and critics applied either the wrong or inefficient method because of the numerous objective or, very often, subjective reasons. The goal of this article is to suggest an alternative variant, in comparison to the traditional literary ones, of theoretical literary analysis which is grounded on the principles of the corporal-mimetic method to interpret fiction, and which is an example of literary analysis of the writer’s novel “Syn Tini” (The Shadow Son). Consequently, the conclusion has been drawn that the meaning of the analyzed novel is not determined by moral-ethical rigorism but by an anthropological correlate of desire aimed to overcome death, hence, to accept life because the exact realization of the corresponding correlate connected with ontological categories “life” and “death” can “explain people’s existence. Not as a flock, but human beings…” (J. Lucan). Moreover, relations between a man and a woman can be considered in the same ontological-anthropological plane. Thus, Oles Ulianenko’s novel “Syn Tini” does not depict a “zoo”, albeit “human” one, not a parade of sadistic deviations which are “idiologized” or “aestheticized”, not to speak about “demonism of criminal actions” of any kind – it depicts exactly people. People who are madly driven by their desire to become someone in life, to be at least “shadow son”, since they are obviously not able to claim the status of those who can count on having their own shadow.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Feliks Shteinbuk Picturesque of Literature and Literature of Fine Arts in Works of Twice Exceptional Expressionists 2021-04-28T07:04:20+00:00 Sofiya Varetska <p>The article considers a problem of the arts interaction, which is a characteristic feature of German expressionism. It analyzes works of gifted expressionists, which are fulfilling themselves not only as writers, but as painters too and vice versa. All attention is paid to such figures of expressionism as Oscar Kokoschka, Franz Kafka, Alfred Kubin. The article argues that the power of talent of such artists is so great that self-realization in one of the arts is not enough for them, and therefore they actively use the opportunity to reveal the facets of their giftedness not only verbally, but also visually, alternately changing brushes to pen. Such a synthesis is quite productive because these works are enriched by narrative thematic motifs, genre varieties, a figurative vision of reality, compositional figures of the material organization, etc. It is proved that the expressionists did not follow the modernist concept “Art for the sake of art”, yet for them a human is with his fears, complexes and visions in the center. Thus, the main aim of an artist is using various artistic means to show a sacred inner world where in contrast to the real philistine life a spiritual unity and harmony do exist. In a combination of text, drawing or music, or, like Kokoschka’s light and paint, expressionists try to convey through multimedia the sensual and sacred that arises for them as the purpose of existence.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sofiya Varetska Representation of the Problem-Thematic Unit “Finance” in the Contemporary British Novel 2021-04-28T07:12:27+00:00 Dmytro Drozdovskyi <p>The problem-thematic unit “Finance” is outlined in the theoretical work “The Routledge Companion to Twenty-First Century Literary Fiction” (2018). The importance of this unit is due to the presence of texts in which to understand the worldview of the characters it is important to take into account the socio-economic environment in which the characters live and which affects their behavior. In the novels “NW” (2012) by Zadie Smith, “Other People’s Money” (2011) by Justin Cartwright and “The Terrible Privacy of Maxwell Sim” (2010) by Jonathan Coe, the writers offer a new representation of the image of money, which distances money from the material world and becomes a transcendental value. Monetary processes are perceived as imaginary phenomena that the characters perceive speculatively. This leads to cataclysms and painful experiences arising from the loss of the characters of their work and the total banking crisis. The representation of money in the novels exploits the tendency that contemporary British authors discover trends related to German philosophy and the ideas of Kantianism. Money is not a form of achieving material goods, but a tool that shows that the characters are able to create another virtual world, which can exist as a speculative phenomenon. The presented range of novels confirms the ideas of B. Shalahinov that the sources of philosophical thought of German Romanticism were nourishing both for the Modern period and the Post-postmodern one, in particular exploited in the British post-postmodern novels.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dmytro Drozdovskyi Text on the Culturological Border: the Cinemanovel “The Red. Without a Front Line” by A. Kokotiukha 2021-04-28T07:55:32+00:00 Nataliia Nikoriak <p>The article under studies reveals the terminological polymodality of the concept of <em>“</em>cinemanovel” as a screened novel; film genre; an original narrative work that tends to a screenplay; literary text written on the basis of the film and the screenplay to it (film <em>“</em>novelization”). An overview of modern theoretical and practical discourse of the cinemanovel genre is presented in the paper. It has been emphasized that some researchers try to find out the origins of this genre by analyzing the samples in a comparative and intermediate way, while others focus on clarifying the specifics of individual novels, concluding on the synthetic and hybrid nature of this genre. In particular, in this aspect, the cinemanovel-prequel by A. Kokotiukha <em>“</em>The Red. Without a Front Line” (2019) has been analyzed. This text, based on a film screenplay, appears to be a rather complex construct that acquires a double coding – cinematic and literary – hence the genre of the novel (as a product of the synthesis of two arts) contains the key features of both. On the one hand, we have to deal with the preservation of the cinematic codes that pass from the screenplay: fragmentation, word visualization, documentalism, eventfulness, editing, alternation of angles and plans, time reduction, dialogues, character formation in action, characterization through speech, conciseness of phrases in certain scenes to create the effect of maximum tension, image condensation, accumulation of internal tension in the episode. On the other hand (as a result of the so-called <em>“</em>novelization”), the text acquires genre features of the novel. These are: the scale of the narration (although fragmented and condensed), the description of characters’ lives is presented in line with historical events, with the disclosure of their psychology and inner world. Finally, the work is also marked with specifically architectonic, i.e. the author connects his cinemanovels together by means of a plot, the main character and a general artistic idea.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nataliia Nikoriak The Interconnections between the Czech Methodological Platform and the Ideas of Modern Ukrainian Literature Studies 2021-04-28T08:03:11+00:00 Alyona Tychinina <p>The article under studies identifies the methodological ties between modern Czech and Ukrainian literary studies on the example of Ivo Pospišil’s monograph “Methodology and Theory of Literary Slavic Studies and Central Europe” (2015). The methodological platform of the scientist is shown in dynamics: comparative studies, phenomenology, historical poetics, genre studies and areal studies. Areal (spatial) philology becomes the methodological framework and “cognitive tool” in the above work. Within the specific features of the hermeneutic circle, I. Pospišil outlines the methodological principles of Brno areal studies, as well as substantiates the powers of areal methodology. Hence, by means of deduction, he narrows the areas of its application and eventually connects spatial poetics to the analysis of specific texts of modern Czech literature. In this respect, areal studies are consonant with the methodology of the N. Kopystyanska’s scientific school. From the standpoint of literary axiology, I. Pospišil characterizes the literary process of 1960–1970 in the way that coincides with the ideas of D. Zatonsky and T. Hundorova. The interpretation of the tropical nature of allegory and symbol, within the areal issues, resonates with a number of Ukrainian investigations. I. Pospišil’s speculations on the problem of auto-reflection and auto-axiology of creativity is based mainly on the concepts of O. Potebnja, on whose methodological reputation rely the works of most Ukrainian researchers. The phenomenon of Central Europe is regarded in the context of “Central European centrism” and multiculturalism, which conceptually brings the scientific research closer to the American studies by N. Vysotska and T. Denisova. I. Pospišil emphasizes the influence of Central European university traditions of the first half of the XX century on the formation of the Prague Linguistic Circle, as well as on the scientific growth of F. Wallman, S. Vilinsky, R Jacobson and R. Wellek. The concept of the history of Russian literature, proposed by I. Pospišil, leads to the profound analysis of the scientific figure of D. Chyzhevsky, which is being widely studied in Ukraine. It is concluded that the “methodological balance” of Czech and Ukrainian literary criticism is ensured by common “pendulum movements” in the history of the literary process, common theoretical and literary basis (works by O. Potebnja, M. Bakhtin, D. Chyzhevsky, D. Ďurišin), parallel influences of Western European literary criticism, as well as collective conference events and consensual research optics.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alyona Tychinina The Creative Indifference of a “Shifter of Registers” (Epochenverschleppe) – Gregor Von Rezzori 2021-04-28T06:16:17+00:00 Tetiana Basniak <p>The body of the article goes on to highlight the problem of Gregor von Rezzori’s extravagant, lavish and idiosyncratic style entwined with his innate exquisite irony and scepticism, sometimes sarcasm, which can be inferred from his stance of indifference to social norms and trends.In the given context, the most expressive and illustrious are Rezzori’s novels “Oedipus Prevails at Stalingrad” (1954) and “On My Own Traces” (1997), which reflect the author’s ambitious venture into his autobiographical mythologizing from a perspective of the category of time and shed the light on how the artist’s negative experience can be turned into creative indifference. Of particular value, for our research, is the convergence of timeless themes and the ideological intertextuality created in two different surroundings, and provoked by fateful historical events. Rezzori’s irony of his own search for self-identity, a distinguishing feature for postmodern poetics, is one of the most critical topics to perceive the author’s personal experience. Transforming his childhood memories of his lost homeland into the imaginative artistic style, the author succeeded in creating a mythical topos, derived from the personal author’s mythologies (his autobiographical fiction “An Ermine in Czernopol” serves as an excellent example). It should be articulated, that pervasive irony and self-irony are key features of the author’s style. With his novel “Oedipus at Stalingrad”, Rezzori prior to postmodernism in art, foreshadowed his conceptual principles, philosophical fundamentals and worldview. In time, his fiction “On My Own Traces” picked up the threads of the ideas of “Oedipus” quintessence. To conclude, Rezzori’s mystical experiences of his childhood are preserved in his fiction like the most precious treasures that reveal the childish fragile soul seeking for its recognition. To grasp Rezzori’s philosophy, we should realize the author’s key concept – the category of time, which enables him to recognize himself as “Epochenverschlepper”: in his fiction, time lines are blurred, to some extent they become meaningless and functionally typify human history continuity. Consequently, in periods when everything seems rickety and unsettled: the past, the present, and the unpredictable future, the author dares to delve into in-depth psychology of human feelings and knowing thy-self.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tetiana Basniak Form-Bilding Factors of the Generational Novel (by the example of novels “Heavenly bodies” by T. Dückers and “In my brother’s shadow” by U. Timm) 2021-04-28T06:34:42+00:00 Olya Hrecheshnyuk <p>The article deals with the problem of the form-bilding factors of the generational novel by the example of the most popular novels of the modern German literature (“Heavenly bodies” by T. Dückers and “In my brother’s shadow” by U. Timm). At the beginning of 21th century the question about the nature of a generational novel, as a specific kind of the family novel, is the most discussed among the specialists in literature. The work is based on research of the important works of famous scientists (A. Assmann, A. Eichenberg, M. Neuschäfer and other). The research demonstrates, that the most significant poetical details of this genre variety apply to its composition. The results of the research show that all generational novels have special structural elements, which are its form-bilding factors (specific composition form, position of the narrator, characters and other). The paper is based on structurally-typological and comparative approaches, which help to reveal the specificity of the generational novel as a genre variety. Scientific novelty contains the try to describe the features of the poetics of the generational novel in the modern German literary process. Despite the actuality of such problem of the generational novel and the existing works this theme is analyzed only a little. That is the reason for research on this topic.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Olya Hrecheshnyuk The figure “teacher-writer” by J. Williams: novel “Stoner” 2021-04-28T06:48:31+00:00 Kateryna Kalynych <p>The realization of the paradigm “teacher-writer” in the interpretation of American professor and writer John Williams has been researched. The comparison of the author’s biography with the image of the protagonist of the novel – Stoner – revealed that the latter is the prototype of the writer. Along with the evolution development of the main character William Stoner, we have followed the improvement of his teaching methods which was reflected on the pages of the novel. The reader’s attention is logically focused on the main issues, such as the war theme and the mission of the university. It was shown how political events (World Wars I and II) consistently influenced the functioning of the educational institution having direct impact on the behavior of the studenthood. The author puts forward his own concept of the real nature of an academic institution thus defining three university models. The first model – “the Stoner model” – renders a closed institution which cluster the chosen ones in order to implement ideal concepts of scientific activity; the second – “the Finch model” – demonstrates an open institution which realizes its educational and spiritual activities for an appropriate reward; the third model, knows as “Masters model”, sees a university as a shelter for incompetent people and elderly unfulfilled personalities. The conclusions lies in the notion of “perfect education” witch should be specific for any given epoch. For instance, according to J. William’s novel, new realia demand of university to renew its concepts and priorities, the lack of which, in its turn, reasons the logic of the conflict between the past and the present, and this is what the character of William Stoner systematically faces, apparently reflecting the experience of the author himself.</p> 2020-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kateryna Kalynych