DOI: https://doi.org/10.31861/pytlit2019.99.078

Non-Classical Forms in George Bacovia’s Poetry: Homomorphic Structures

Kristiniia Paladian

Abstract


The article deals with the works of non-classical forms of Romanian poet George Bacovia. Having made his début as a poet-symbolist, he sets up as the author of new poetic forms in the Romanian literature at the turn of the 20th century, discovering artistic means of modernism. Versification analysis of lyrical works of G. Bacovia showed that his non-classical poems are built on the basis of homomorphism and heteromophism. G. Bacovia used five homomorphic forms among which are: three-stress dolnik (Dk3), four-stress dolnik (Dk4), five-stress dolnik (Dk5), three-stress taktovik (Tk3) and four-stress taktovik (Tk4). Dominating become dolnik constructions and both in pure form and in combination with other kinds of tonics. The most often used forms become three-stress dolniks, which, for the most part, become a systematized or “normalized” forms. The poet builds up such forms on the basis of trisyllable classical meters. Dolnik form proper with dynamic and flexible rhythm, in which inner lines modulations inter-ictus intervals are available, can be observed in four-stress dolniks. To the regularity of Dk4 testify almost constant one-syllable anacrusis, predominance of female clauses and availability of rhyming and strophic organization of the poetic work. Five-stress forms of dolnik appear sporadically only in combination with other meters, mostly with Dk4 and only in not fully stressed form. Taktovik is a less used meter. It is mostly part of polymorphic structure at the level of micropolymetria or is directed to the pure tonic. Taktovik is built on the basis of shattered disyllabic meters.

Keywords


George Bacovia; poetry; non-classical versification; meter; rhythm; dolnik; taktovik; homomorphic structures

References


Bailey J. Izbrannye statʹi po russkomu literaturnomu stikhu [Selected poems in the Russian literary language]. Moscow, 2004, 376 p. (in Russian).

Bryusov V. Osnovy stihovedeniya: Obshcheye vvedeniye. Metrika i ritmika [The Basis of versification: General introduction. Meter and rhythm]. Moscow, 2018, 138 p. (in Russian).

Gasparov M. Ocherk istorii russkogo stiha. Metrika. Ritmika. Rifma. Strofika [Essay on Russian verse history. Meter. Rhythm. Rhyme. Strophe]. Moscow, 2000, 352 p. (in Russian).

Gasparov M. Sovremenyy russkiy stih. Metrika i ritmika [Modern Russian Verse. Meter and rhythm]. Moscow, 1974, 486 p. (in Russian).

Zhirmunsky V. Теоriya stiha [Theory of verse]. Leningrad, 1975, 664 p. (in Russian).

Kostenko N. Ukrainske virshuvannya ХХ stolittya [Ukrainian poetry of the 20th century]. Kyiv, 2006, 287 p. (in Ukrainian).

Kostenko N. Ukrainskiy dolnik [Ukrainian dolnik]. Kyiv, 2013, 432 p. (in Ukrainian).

Paladian K. Klasychni formy u tvorchosti Dzheordzhe Bakoviia [The classic forms in the work of George Bacovia]. Aktualni problemy romano-germanskoji filologii ta prykladnoji lingvistyky, 2014, no. 7, pp. 162–172. (in Ukrainian).

Plungian V. O poniatii “metricheskich derivatov” v russkom stihoslozhenii. Razbor nekotorych sluchayev [On the notation of “metric derivatives” in Russian versification. Discussion of soma cases]. Available at: http://www.philol.msu.ru/-otipl/new/npmmvya/handouts.html (accessed 3 July 2018). (in Russian).

Skulachiova T. Metody opredelenia metra w neklasicheskom stihe [Methods of determining meter in non-classical verse]. Izvestiya RAN, 2012, no. 2, pp. 42–55. (in Russian).

Bacovia G. Opere. Bucharest, 1994, 432 p.

Galdi L. Introducere în istoria versului românesc [Introduction into history of Romanian verse]. Bucharest, 1971, 480 p. (in Romanian).

Paladian K. Versificaţia lui George Bacovia: forme iambice. Naukoviy visnyk Chernivetskogo natsionalnogo universytetu, 2014, no. 721, pp. 36–41.

Streinu V. Versificaţia modernă. Bucharest, 1966, 350 p.

Voica A. Valori prozodice în poezia Plumb de G. Bacovia. In: Deschiderea cercului. Yasi, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 110–114.


GOST Style Citations


Бейли Дж. Избранные стихи по русскому литературному языку. Москва : Языки славянской культуры, 2004. 376 с.

Брюсов В. Основы стиховедения: Общее введение. Метрика и ритмика. Москва : URSS, 2018. 138 с.

Гаспаров М. Очерк истории русского стиха. Метрика. Ритмика. Рифма. Строфика. Москва : Фортуна Лимитед, 2000. 352 с.

Гаспаров М. Современный русский стих. Метрика и ритмика. Москва : Наука, 1974. 486 с.

Жирмунский В. Введение в метрику. Теория стиха. Ленинград : Советский писатель, 1975. 664 с.

Костенко Н. Українське віршування ХХ століття. Київ : Видавничо-поліграфічний центр „Київський університет”, 2006. 287 с.

Костенко Н. Український дольник: колективна монографія / за ред. Н. Костенко. Київ : Видавничий дім Дмитра Бураго, 2013. 432 с.

Паладян К. Класичні форми у творчості Джеодже Баковія. Актуальні проблеми романо-германської філології та прикладної лінгвістики. Чернівці : Видавничий дім «РОДОВІД», 2014. С. 162–172.

Плунгян В. О понятии «метрических дериватов» в русском стихосложении. Разбор некоторых случаев. URL : http://www.philol.msu.ru/-otipl/new/npmmvya/handouts.html (дата обращения: 3.07.2018).

Скулачева Т. Методы определения метра в неклассическом стихе. Известия РАН. Сер. лит. и яз. 2012. № 2. С. 42–55.

Bacovia G. Opere. Bucureştі : Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române, 1994. 432 p.

Galdi L. Introducere în istoria versului românesc. Bucureşti : Minerva, 1971. 480 p.

Paladian C. Versificaţia lui George Bacovia : forme iambice. Науковий вісник Чернівецького університету. Чернівці : Чернів. нац. ун-т, 2014. Вип. 721: Романо-словянський дискурс. С. 36–41.

Streinu V. Versificaţia modernă. Bucureşti : EPL, 1966. 350 p.

Voica A. Valori prozodice în poezia Plumb de G. Bacovia. Deschiderea cercului. Iaşi : Ed. Univ. „Al. I. Cuza”, 2002. Vol. 1. P. 110–114.





Copyright (c) 2019 Kristiniia Paladian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The journal publishes research papers on terms: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 

 

Pytannia literaturoznavstva
ISSN 2306-2908 
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University
2 Kotsiubynsky str., Chernivtsi 58012, Ukraine